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When Do 5G Private Network Developers Need to Modify the 5G NR Standard?

Private networks provide secure connectivity for various specialized applications, such as satellite communications, air-to-ground (A2G) and transportation networks, and tactical systems. Providing spectral efficiency and a well-defined architecture, 4G LTE has been the standard of choice for numerous private network applications.

Many developers are now considering a migration to 5G because of its performance advantages, including rapid data rates, extremely low latency, and high reliability. To capitalize on these improvements, private network developers often need to make algorithmic or protocol changes to the 5G New Radio (NR) standard to meet certain demands.

In this blog post, learn about two challenges that require the customization of a 5G private network.

5G Private Networks

5G has three main use case families (ultra-reliable, low latency communications; enhanced mobile broadband; and massive machine type communications) that have been defined by 3GPP, the industry body behind the 5G standard. Each use case shows 5G's great potential in a diverse range of private network applications.

Although development, maturity, and utilization continue to grow, let’s review two scenarios that require alterations to the 5G NR standard to maximize performance. 

High Speeds

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellites as well as aircraft operate at fast speeds. For example, an aircraft’s typical cruising speed is roughly around 559 mph (900 km/h). Traveling at such a high rate of speed increases the impact of the Doppler effect on the network.

Evoking the widely used example of a police siren changing in pitch as it rushes down a road, the Doppler effect explains the behavior of waves transmitting from an object in motion with respect to a stationary observer. When traveling toward the observer, signals move higher in frequency. When traveling away from the observer, signals move lower in frequency.

In the case of private networks, carrier signals experience this shift in frequency when traveling between ground stations and user equipment (UE) onboard a quickly moving aircraft. Networks must modify the 5G standard to cope with large frequency shifts.

Did you know that phase noise has a considerable impact on Doppler radar systems? Learn more about phase noise in our blog post, "What Is Phase Noise and How Is It Optimally Measured?”

High Latency

The physical distance between ground stations and non-terrestrial objects can be significant, especially for satellite networks. Geosynchronous equatorial (GEO) satellites operate in high orbits, approximately 22,245 miles (35,800 km) above the Earth. For comparison, LEO satellites operate about 1,200 miles (2,000 km) or less from the Earth's surface.

As the distance from a ground station increases, so does the signal delay. To compensate for the delay incurred by distant, high-orbit satellites, 5G standard optimizations are often required.

Specialized Expertise in Extending the 5G NR Standard

Modifying a 5G network from scratch can be a daunting task that drains valuable resources. With expertise in 5G NR and extending 3GPP specifications, CommAgility offers a range of software, hardware, and reference design solutions that enable developers to satisfy unique network requirements.

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The "5G New Radio Solutions Guide" is a great resource to learn exactly how solutions from CommAgility can minimize cost, reduce risk, and quicken the development time of 5G private networks.

Watch Now: Why Should Private Network Developers Consider 5G?

What private network applications fall under the three main use cases of 5G? Learn the answer in the video below. Viewers can also refresh their understanding of application-specific challenges that demand customizations beyond the 3GPP standard.


Browse through the CommAgility 5G NR product portfolio to start the seamless customization of your 5G private network.